Protective effects of forced exercise against nicotine-induced anxiety, depression and cognition impairment in rat

Motaghinejad, M. and Fatima, S. and Karimian, M. and Ganji, S. (2016) Protective effects of forced exercise against nicotine-induced anxiety, depression and cognition impairment in rat. Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology, 27 (1). pp. 19-27.

[img] Text
[Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology] Protective effects of forced exercise against nicotine-induced anxiety depression and cognition impairment in rat.pdf

Download (651kB)


Nicotine is one of the psychostimulant agents displaying parasympathomimetic activity; the chronic neurochemical and behavioral effects of nicotine remain unclear. Exercise lowers stress and anxiety and can act as a non-pharmacologic neuroprotective agent. In this study, the protective effects of exercise in nicotine withdrawal syndrome-induced anxiety, depression, and cognition impairment wereinvestigated. Methods: Seventy adult male rats were divided randomly into five groups. Group 1 served as negative control and received normal saline (0.2 mL/rat, i.p.) for 30 days, whereas group 2 (as positive control) received nicotine (6 mg/kg/day, s.c.) for the first 15 days. Groups 4, 5, and 6 were treated with nicotine (6 mg/kg/day, s.c.) for the first 15 days and then were treated with forced exercise, bupropion (20 mg/kg/day, i.p.), or a combination of the two for the following 15 days. Between day 25 and day 30, Morris water maze was used to evaluate spatial learning and memory. From days 31 to 35, the elevated plus maze (EPM), open field test (OFT), forced swim test (FST), and tail suspension test (TST) were used to investigate the level of anxiety and depression in the subjects. Results: Nicotine-dependent animals indicated a reflective depression and anxiety in a dose-dependent manner in FST, EPM, and TST, which were significantly different from the control group and also can significantly attenuate the motor activity and anxiety in OFT. Conclusions: Forced exercise, bupropion, or their combination can attenuate nicotine cessation-induced anxiety, depression, and motor activity in the mentioned behavioral assay. We conclude that forced exercise can protect the brain against nicotine withdrawal-induced anxiety, depression, and cognitive alteration. © 2016 by De Gruyter.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Cited By :14 Export Date: 16 February 2020 CODEN: JBPPE Correspondence Address: Motaghinejad, M.; Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14496, Iran; email:
Uncontrolled Keywords: Anxiety cognition impairment depression forced exercise nicotine amfebutamone sodium chloride adult animal experiment animal model Article cognitive defect controlled study dose response exercise forced swim test male memory Morris water maze test motor activity nonhuman open field test physical activity rat spatial learning tail suspension test tobacco dependence withdrawal syndrome animal animal behavior brain Cognition Disorders drug effects immobilization maze test metabolism physiology prevention and control Substance Withdrawal Syndrome Animals Behavior, Animal Hindlimb Suspension Maze Learning Physical Conditioning, Animal Rats
Subjects: WM Psychiatry
Divisions: Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
Depositing User: mr lib4 lib4
Date Deposited: 01 Mar 2020 06:56
Last Modified: 01 Mar 2020 06:56

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item