Use of sedative drugs at reducing the side effects of voiding cystourethrography in children

Alizadeh, A. and Naseri, M. and Ravanshad, Y. and Sorouri, S. and Banihassan, M. and Azarfar, A. (2017) Use of sedative drugs at reducing the side effects of voiding cystourethrography in children. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 22 (1).

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Background: Imaging of the kidneys and urinary tract has a significant and critical role for diagnosis of genitourinary system diseases. Although technological progress goes toward less invasive approaches, some of the current methods are still invasive and annoying. Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) is the best and most accurate method for diagnosis and grading of vesicoureteral reflux. VCUG is a distressful procedure that gives serious anxiety and pain in a large proportion of children and fear for parents; therefore, using effective sedative drugs with the least side effects is necessary and should be considered. Materials and Methods: In this review article, importance and efficacy of different drugs before catheterization VCUG be compared in the base of literature survey on EMBASE, PubMed, and Cochrane source. Results: We found that the treatment should be based on nonpharmacological and pharmacological methods; nonpharmacological treatment includes the psychological preparation before procedures as a safety precaution with little or no risk modality, as well as reassuring support. The presence of parents during painful procedures cannot alleviate children distress. Pharmacological methods include oral midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) and intranasal use (0.2 mg/kg) that had been used 10 min before the procedure can effect on anterograde amnesia and sedation without considerable effect on accuracy and grade of reflux. Nitric oxide has a shorter recovery time versus midazolam but has a potential risk for deep sedation and may interfere with the child’s voiding phase. Conclusion: In summary, oral midazolam of 0.5–0.6 mg/kg or 0.2 mg/kg intranasal is acceptable drug that can be used before VCUG. © 2017 Journal of Research in Medical Sciences.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Cited By :2 Export Date: 16 February 2020 Correspondence Address: Ravanshad, Y.; Clinical Research Development Center, Ghaem Hospital, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical SciencesIran; email:
Uncontrolled Keywords: Children Cystourethrography Midazolam Sedative chloral hydrate local anesthetic agent nitric oxide opiate propofol sedative agent anterograde amnesia catheterization clinical assessment cystography distress syndrome drug efficacy human micturition cystourethrography premedication Review sedation systematic review
Subjects: WS Pediatrics
QV pharmacology
Divisions: Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
Depositing User: mr lib3 lib3
Date Deposited: 13 May 2020 06:17
Last Modified: 13 May 2020 06:17

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