Antidotes for aluminum phosphide poisoning – An update

Karimani, A. and Mohammadpour, A. H. and Zirak, M. R. and Rezaee, R. and Megarbane, B. and Tsatsakis, A. and Karimi, G. (2018) Antidotes for aluminum phosphide poisoning – An update. Toxicology Reports, 5. pp. 1053-1059.

[img] Text
Antidotes for aluminum phosphide poisoning – An update.pdf

Download (433kB)


Aluminum phosphide (AlP), an inexpensive solid fumigant, is frequently used for grain conservation despite its alleged high toxicity. Increased utilization of AlP for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes during the last four decades has resulted in increment of AlP-attributed poisoning numbers. Moreover, due to its limitless accessibility in developing countries, AlP has been increasingly used for suicide. Moisture-exposed AlP undergoes a chemical reaction producing phosphine gas, which in turn inhibits cytochrome oxidase and impedes cellular oxygen consumption. Lethality remains elevated reaching rates of >50 and no effective antidote is available. Nevertheless, experimental and clinical studies suggested that magnesium sulfate, melatonin, N-acetylcysteine, glutathione, sodium selenite, vitamin C and E, triiodothyronine, liothyronine, vasopressin, milrinone, Laurus nobilis L., 6-aminonicotinamide, boric acid, acetyl-L-carnitine and coconut oil, may serve as antidotes by reducing the deleterious oxidative properties of AlP. This article reviews the afore-mentioned chemicals suggested to specifically treat AlP poisoning and discusses their protective mechanisms and main outcomes. © 2018 The Authors

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Cited By :3 Export Date: 16 February 2020 Correspondence Address: Karimi, G.; Pharmacy SchoolIran; email:
Uncontrolled Keywords: Aluminum phosphide Antidote Intoxication Phosphine Protection 6 aminonicotinamide acetylcysteine alpha tocopherol ascorbic acid boric acid catalase coconut oil cytochrome c oxidase glutathione glutathione peroxidase 3 levacecarnine liothyronine magnesium sulfate melatonin milrinone reactive oxygen metabolite sodium selenite vasopressin apoptosis cardiovascular function cell death cell respiration controlled study drug toxicity genetic damage heart arrhythmia heavy metal poisoning human hypoxia Laurus nobilis lethality mortality rate nonhuman oxidative phosphorylation oxidative stress oxygen consumption priority journal Review survival rate
Subjects: QV pharmacology
Divisions: Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
Depositing User: lib2 lib2 lib2
Date Deposited: 11 May 2020 08:28
Last Modified: 11 May 2020 08:28

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item