Thromboangiitis obliterans episode: Autoimmune flare-up or reinfection?

Mohareri, M. and Mirhosseini, A. and Mehraban, S. and Fazeli, B. (2018) Thromboangiitis obliterans episode: Autoimmune flare-up or reinfection? Vascular Health and Risk Management, 14. pp. 247-251.

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Background: The possible role of infectious pathogens in the development of thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO) was considered soon after the disease was first described. However, it is not yet known whether infectious pathogens induce thrombotic vasculitis or if they cause a type of autoimmune disease. To investigate whether TAO relapses are more likely due to reinfection or autoimmune flare, the serum levels of toll-like receptor (sTLR) 4, sTLR2, C-reactive protein (CRP), and neopterin were evaluated in TAO patients during both the acute and quiescent phases of the disease as well as in a gender-, age-, and smoking habit-matched control group. Methods: Following a cross-sectional study design, 28 patients in the acute phase of TAO and 23 patients in the quiescent phase participated in this study. In addition, 31 matched controls were enrolled. Results: Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 was significantly higher in patients in the acute phase of the disease than in patients in the quiescent phase (P=0.012). Also, TLR4 was significantly higher in the patients with CRP >7 µm/mL than in the patients with lower CRP (P=0.031). Notably, TLR4 in the patients in the quiescent phase of TAO was significantly lower than in the controls (P=0.006). No significant difference in the level of TLR2 was found among the groups (P>0.05). Neopterin was significantly higher in the acute phase of TAO in comparison to the quiescent phase (P=0.003) and the controls (P=0.005). Conclusion: These findings indicate that the trigger of TAO might be Gram-negative bacteria, which can be hidden or immunologically suppressed in the quiescent phase of TAO, leading to a lower level of TLR4 accompanying the normal level of neopterin. However, relapses might develop according to toxic or hypoxic cell injuries. Hence, TLR4 shedding will increase, and therefore, sTLR4 could become closer to the level demonstrated in the controls. © 2018 Mohareri et al.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Cited By :1 Export Date: 16 February 2020 Correspondence Address: Fazeli, B.; Immunology Research Center, Inflammation and Inflammatory Diseases Division, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Pardis Campus, Azadi Sqr, Iran; email:
Uncontrolled Keywords: Buerger’s disease CRP Infection Innate immunity Neopterin Peripheral arterial diseases Thromboangiitis obliterans TLR2 TLR4 Vasculitis C reactive protein toll like receptor 2 toll like receptor 4 biological marker TLR2 protein, human TLR4 protein, human acute phase response adaptive immunity adult Article autoimmune disease autoimmunity bacterial shedding blood sampling Buerger disease cell damage cigarette smoking claudication clinical evaluation controlled study cross-sectional study disease course disease exacerbation Gram negative bacterium human hypoxic cell immunosuppressive treatment major clinical study nonhuman protein blood level recurrence risk reinfection relapse skin ulcer toe gangrene blood case control study female Gram negative infection host pathogen interaction immunology male metabolism microbiology middle aged pathogenicity recurrent disease risk factor time factor Biomarkers C-Reactive Protein Case-Control Studies Cross-Sectional Studies Gram-Negative Bacteria Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections Host-Pathogen Interactions Humans Recurrence Risk Factors Time Factors Toll-Like Receptor 2 Toll-Like Receptor 4
Subjects: WG Cardiovascular System
QW Microbiology and Immunology
Divisions: Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
Depositing User: lib2 lib2 lib2
Date Deposited: 09 May 2020 05:20
Last Modified: 09 May 2020 05:20

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