Global mortality from firearms, 1990-2016

Nand, D. and Naghavi, M. and Marczak, L. B. and Kutz, M. and Shackelford, K. A. and Arora, M. and Miller-Petrie, M. and Aichour, M. T. E. and Akseer, N. and Al-Raddadi, R. M. and Alam, K. and Alghnam, S. A. and Antonio, C. A. T. and Aremu, O. and Arora, A. and Asadi-Lari, M. and Assadi, R. and Atey, T. M. and Avila-Burgos, L. and Awasthi, A. and Quintanilla, B. P. A. and Barker-Collo, S. L. and Bärnighausen, T. W. and Bazargan-Hejazi, S. and Behzadifar, M. and Behzadifar, M. and Bennett, J. R. and Bhalla, A. and Bhutta, Z. A. and Bilal, A. I. and Borges, G. and Borschmann, R. and Brazinova, A. and Rincon, J. C. C. and Carvalho, F. and Castañeda-Orjuela, C. A. and Dandona, L. and Dandona, R. and Dargan, P. I. and De Leo, D. and Dharmaratne, S. D. and Ding, E. L. and Do, H. P. and Doku, D. T. and Doyle, K. E. and Driscoll, T. R. and Edessa, D. and El-Khatib, Z. and Endries, A. Y. and Esteghamati, A. and Faro, A. and Farzadfar, F. and Feigin, V. L. and Fischer, F. and Foreman, K. J. and Franklin, R. C. and Fullman, N. and Futran, N. D. and Gebrehiwot, T. T. and Gutiérrez, R. A. and Hafezi-Nejad, N. and Bidgoli, H. H. and Hailu, G. B. and Haro, J. M. and Hassen, H. Y. and Hawley, C. and Hendrie, D. and Híjar, M. and Hu, G. and Ilesanmi, O. S. and Jakovljevic, M. and James, S. L. and Jayaraman, S. and Jonas, J. B. and Kahsay, A. and Kasaeian, A. and Keiyoro, P. N. and Khader, Y. and Khalil, I. A. and Khang, Y. H. and Khubchandani, J. and Kiadaliri, A. A. and Kieling, C. and Kim, Y. J. and Kosen, S. and Krohn, K. J. and Kumar, G. A. and Lami, F. H. and Lansingh, V. C. and Larson, H. J. and Linn, S. and Lunevicius, R. and Abd El Razek, H. M. and Abd El Razek, M. M. and Malekzadeh, R. and Malta, D. C. and Mason-Jones, A. J. and Matzopoulos, R. and Memiah, P. T. N. and Mendoza, W. (2018) Global mortality from firearms, 1990-2016. JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association, 320 (8). pp. 792-814.

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Abstract

IMPORTANCE Understanding global variation in firearm mortality rates could guide prevention policies and interventions. OBJECTIVE To estimate mortality due to firearm injury deaths from 1990 to 2016 in 195 countries and territories. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This study used deidentified aggregated data including 13 812 location-years of vital registration data to generate estimates of levels and rates of death by age-sex-year-location. The proportion of suicides in which a firearm was the lethal means was combined with an estimate of per capita gun ownership in a revised proxy measure used to evaluate the relationship between availability or access to firearms and firearm injury deaths. EXPOSURES Firearm ownership and access. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Cause-specific deaths by age, sex, location, and year. RESULTS Worldwide, it was estimated that 251 000 (95uncertainty interval UI, 195 000-276 000) people died from firearm injuries in 2016, with 6 countries (Brazil, United States, Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, and Guatemala) accounting for 50.5%(95%UI, 42.2%-54.8%) of those deaths. In 1990, there were an estimated 209 000 (95%UI, 172 000 to 235 000) deaths from firearm injuries. Globally, the majority of firearm injury deaths in 2016 were homicides (64.0% 95%UI, 54.2%-68.0%; absolute value, 161 000 deaths 95%UI, 107 000-182 000); additionally, 27%were firearm suicide deaths (67 500 95%UI, 55 400-84 100) and 9% were unintentional firearm deaths (23 000 95%UI, 18 200-24 800). From 1990 to 2016, there was no significant decrease in the estimated global age-standardized firearm homicide rate (-0.2%95%UI, -0.8%to 0.2%). Firearm suicide rates decreased globally at an annualized rate of 1.6%(95%UI, 1.1-2.0), but in 124 of 195 countries and territories included in this study, these levels were either constant or significant increases were estimated. There was an annualized decrease of 0.9% (95%UI, 0.5%-1.3%) in the global rate of age-standardized firearm deaths from 1990 to 2016. Aggregate firearm injury deaths in 2016 were highest among persons aged 20 to 24 years (for men, an estimated 34 700 deaths 95%UI, 24 900-39 700 and for women, an estimated 3580 deaths 95%UI, 2810-4210). Estimates of the number of firearms by country were associated with higher rates of firearm suicide (P <.001; R2 = 0.21) and homicide (P <.001; R2 = 0.35). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This study estimated between 195 000 and 276 000 firearm injury deaths globally in 2016, the majority of which were firearm homicides. Despite an overall decrease in rates of firearm injury death since 1990, there was variation among countries and across demographic subgroups. © 2018 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Cited By :25 Export Date: 16 February 2020 CODEN: JAMAA Correspondence Address: Naghavi, M.; Global Health Department, Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, 2301 Fifth Ave., United States; email: nagham@uw.edu
Uncontrolled Keywords: adult Article cause of death demography disease association female gender geographic distribution global disease burden groups by age gunshot injury homicide human male mortality rate priority journal suicidal behavior adolescent age distribution aged child firearm global health infant middle aged mortality newborn preschool child sex ratio statistics and numerical data suicide trends very elderly young adult Aged, 80 and over Child, Preschool Firearms Humans Infant, Newborn Sex Distribution Wounds, Gunshot
Subjects: WA Public Health
Divisions: Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
Depositing User: lib2 lib2 lib2
Date Deposited: 07 May 2020 13:50
Last Modified: 07 May 2020 13:50
URI: http://eprints.mums.ac.ir/id/eprint/17446

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