Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

Stanaway, J. D. and Afshin, A. and Gakidou, E. and Lim, S. S. and Abate, D. and Abate, K. H. and Abbafati, C. and Abbasi, N. and Abbastabar, H. and Abd-Allah, F. and Abdela, J. and Abdelalim, A. and Abdollahpour, I. and Abdulkader, R. S. and Abebe, M. and Abebe, Z. and Abera, S. F. and Abil, O. Z. and Abraha, H. N. and Abrham, A. R. and Abu-Raddad, L. J. and Abu-Rmeileh, N. M. E. and Accrombessi, M. M. K. and Acharya, D. and Acharya, P. and Adamu, A. A. and Adane, A. A. and Adebayo, O. M. and Adedoyin, R. A. and Adekanmbi, V. and Ademi, Z. and Adetokunboh, O. O. and Adib, M. G. and Admasie, A. and Adsuar, J. C. and Afanvi, K. A. and Afarideh, M. and Agarwal, G. and Aggarwal, A. and Aghayan, S. A. and Agrawal, A. and Agrawal, S. and Ahmadi, A. and Ahmadi, M. and Ahmadieh, H. and Ahmed, M. B. and Aichour, A. N. and Aichour, I. and Aichour, M. T. E. and Akbari, M. E. and Akinyemiju, T. and Akseer, N. and Al-Aly, Z. and Al-Eyadhy, A. and Al-Mekhlafi, H. M. and Alahdab, F. and Alam, K. and Alam, S. and Alam, T. and Alashi, A. and Alavian, S. M. and Alene, K. A. and Ali, K. and Ali, S. M. and Alijanzadeh, M. and Alizadeh-Navaei, R. and Aljunid, S. M. and Alkerwi, A. and Alla, F. and Alsharif, U. and Altirkawi, K. and Alvis-Guzman, N. and Amare, A. T. and Ammar, W. and Anber, N. H. and Anderson, J. A. and Andrei, C. L. and Androudi, S. and Animut, M. D. and Anjomshoa, M. and Ansha, M. G. and Antó, J. M. and Antonio, C. A. T. and Anwari, P. and Appiah, L. T. and Appiah, S. C. Y. and Arabloo, J. and Aremu, O. and Ärnlöv, J. and Artaman, A. and Aryal, K. K. and Asayesh, H. and Ataro, Z. and Ausloos, M. and Avokpaho, E. F. G. A. and Awasthi, A. and Quintanilla, B. P. A. and Ayer, R. and Ayuk, T. B. and Azzopardi, P. S. (2018) Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. The Lancet, 392 (10159). pp. 1923-1994.

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Abstract

Background The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017 comparative risk assessment (CRA) is a comprehensive approach to risk factor quantification that offers a useful tool for synthesising evidence on risks and risk-outcome associations. With each annual GBD study, we update the GBD CRA to incorporate improved methods, new risks and risk-outcome pairs, and new data on risk exposure levels and risk- outcome associations. Methods We used the CRA framework developed for previous iterations of GBD to estimate levels and trends in exposure, attributable deaths, and attributable disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), by age group, sex, year, and location for 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or groups of risks from 1990 to 2017. This study included 476 risk-outcome pairs that met the GBD study criteria for convincing or probable evidence of causation. We extracted relative risk and exposure estimates from 46 749 randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, household surveys, census data, satellite data, and other sources. We used statistical models to pool data, adjust for bias, and incorporate covariates. Using the counterfactual scenario of theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL), we estimated the portion of deaths and DALYs that could be attributed to a given risk. We explored the relationship between development and risk exposure by modelling the relationship between the Socio-demographic Index (SDI) and risk-weighted exposure prevalence and estimated expected levels of exposure and risk-attributable burden by SDI. Finally, we explored temporal changes in risk-attributable DALYs by decomposing those changes into six main component drivers of change as follows: (1) population growth; (2) changes in population age structures; (3) changes in exposure to environmental and occupational risks; (4) changes in exposure to behavioural risks; (5) changes in exposure to metabolic risks; and (6) changes due to all other factors, approximated as the risk-deleted death and DALY rates, where the risk-deleted rate is the rate that would be observed had we reduced the exposure levels to the TMREL for all risk factors included in GBD 2017. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Cited By :317 Export Date: 16 February 2020 CODEN: LANCA
Uncontrolled Keywords: drinking water glucose Africa south of the Sahara aging Article body mass Caribbean comparative study disability-adjusted life year environmental exposure Europe fasting female glucose blood level groups by age high risk behavior human indoor air pollution international cooperation major clinical study male metabolism Middle East mortality risk North Africa occupational hazard Pacific islands population growth priority journal risk assessment sex factor smoking South and Central America South Asia Southeast Asia systolic hypertension trend study unsafe sex adolescent adult age distribution aged child disabled person global disease burden global health infant life expectancy metabolic disorder middle aged newborn occupational disease occupational exposure preschool child quality adjusted life year sex ratio socioeconomics statistics and numerical data trends very elderly young adult Aged, 80 and over Child, Preschool Disabled Persons Global Burden of Disease Health Risk Behaviors Humans Infant, Newborn Metabolic Diseases Occupational Diseases Quality-Adjusted Life Years Sex Distribution Socioeconomic Factors
Subjects: WA Public Health
W General medicine- Health professions
Divisions: Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
Depositing User: lib2 lib2 lib2
Date Deposited: 28 Apr 2020 08:09
Last Modified: 28 Apr 2020 08:09
URI: http://eprints.mums.ac.ir/id/eprint/17547

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