Status of clinical toxicology education and ethics in medical care of poisoned patients in the Islamic Republic of Iran and a comparison with other countries

Banagozar-Mohammadi, A. and Delirrad, M. and Alizadeh, A. and Majidi, M. and Balali-Mood, M. (2019) Status of clinical toxicology education and ethics in medical care of poisoned patients in the Islamic Republic of Iran and a comparison with other countries. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology.

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Status of clinical toxicology education and ethics in medical care of poisoned patients in the Islamic Republic of Iran and a comparison with other countries.pdf

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Abstract

Clinical toxicology is not recognized as a clinical speciality in Iran. After the chemical war gas attack by the Iraqi army against the Iranian troops in the 1980s, health professionals and Iranian authorities noticed the importance of this field in clinical medicine. Collaboration between the clinical toxicologists and toxicologists of pharmacy schools resulted in the establishment of the Iranian Society of Toxicology and Poisonings in 1991 and the National Board of Toxicology in 1993. Clinical toxicology fellowship was also formed as a joint collaboration between the toxicology and internal medicine boards in 2010. Medical doctors who specialized in clinical medicine are eligible to take the entrance examination of the fellowship. In spite of the advancement of clinical toxicology and increased number of acute poisonings and drug abuse, undergraduate teaching in this field is still lacking and being taught as part of the forensic medicine curriculum since 1952. There is a lack of an efficient national poison information and control centre (s) in Iran, and no action plan and practical efforts have been done for poisoning prevention. Therefore, the number of drug abuse and acute poisonings has increased over the past four decades and induced cultural, social and health problems. According to Iranian legal medicine organization reports, poisoning is the second-most occurring cause of unnatural death. The suicidal attempt is the most common method of acute poisoning in adults. Suicidal attempt including self-poisoning is not accepted in the Islamic point of view, and thus self-poisoning is mostly neglected and may not be treated appropriately in time in some regions of Iran. Accidental poisoning in children is also common in Iran and estimated to be between 20 000 and 25 000 cases annually over the recent years. In addition, social, cultural and economic problems have induced more health problems such as drug abuse and addiction even in children. Adulterated opium to lead for economic gaining has produced thousands of cases of lead poisoning over the past few years in nearly all opium addicts, which is still a major health problem in Iran. Ban on alcoholic beverages leads some people to make their own home-made spirits, which is unfortunately contaminated with methanol. Thousands of cases of methanol poisoning and even some epidemics have occurred over the past four decades in some parts of the country. Lack of availability of essential antidotes such as succimer and fomepizole has been a major problem for the effective treatment of poisoned patients. Despite the well-known fact that cases of poisoning and drug overdose constitute a significant proportion of hospital admissions in some developing countries, clinical toxicology education and medical care of the poisoned patients are lacking. Therefore, policymakers and health authorities should realize the importance of toxicology in clinical medicine. The Iranian Ministry of Health, medical care and Medical Education should implement clinical toxicology courses for medical students; establish effective national poisons information and control centres and advance clinical toxicology services for appropriate management of poisoned patients to improve public health and the overall health policy goals. © 2019 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society)

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Export Date: 16 February 2020 CODEN: BCPTB Correspondence Address: Balali-Mood, M.; Medical Toxicology and Drug Abuse Research Center, Birjand University of Medical SciencesIran; email: balalimoodm@mums.ac.ir
Uncontrolled Keywords: clinical toxicology Iran medical care medical education poisoning
Subjects: QV pharmacology
Divisions: Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
Depositing User: mr lib1 lib1
Date Deposited: 20 Jun 2020 09:04
Last Modified: 20 Jun 2020 09:04
URI: http://eprints.mums.ac.ir/id/eprint/18283

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