In Vitro and in Vivo Effectiveness of Carvacrol, Thymol and Linalool against Leishmania infantum

Youssefi, M. R. and Moghaddas, E. and Tabari, M. A. and Moghadamnia, A. A. and Hosseini, S. M. and Hosseini Farash, B. R. and Ebrahimi, M. A. and Mousavi, N. N. and Fata, A. and Maggi, F. and Petrelli, R. and Dall’Acqua, S. and Benelli, G. and Sut, S. (2019) In Vitro and in Vivo Effectiveness of Carvacrol, Thymol and Linalool against Leishmania infantum. Molecules, 24 (11).

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Background: One of the most important causative agents of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is Leishmania infantum, which is mainly spread by Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia sandflies in the Old and New World, respectively. Novel and effective drugs to manage this neglected vector-borne disease are urgently required. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of carvacrol, thymol and linalool, three common essential oil constituents, on amastigotes and promastigotes of L. infantum. Methods: in vitro experiments were performed by 24 h MTT assay. Carvacrol, thymol and linalool at concentrations ranging from 1.3 to 10 µg/mL were tested on promastigotes of L. infantum. For in vivo test, two groups of hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) received 100 mg/kg of body weight/day of carvacrol and thymol as intraperitoneal injection on day 7 post-infection, followed by a 48 h later injection. The third group was treated with the glucantime as standard drug (500 mg/kg) and the last group (control) just received normal saline. On the 16th day, the number of parasites and histopathological changes in liver and spleen were investigated. Results: 24 h MTT assay showed promising antileishmanial activity of thymol and carvacrol, with IC50 values of 7.2 (48 µM) and 9.8 µg/mL (65 µM), respectively. Linalool at all concentrations did not affect L. infantum promastigote viability. In vivo toxicity data of carvacrol and thymol showed that the former at 100 mg/kg was the safest and most effective treatment with little side effects on the liver. Conclusions: Overall, thymol and carvacrol are highly promising candidates for the development of effective and safe drugs in the fight against VL. © 2019 by the authors.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Cited By :2 Export Date: 16 February 2020 CODEN: MOLEF Correspondence Address: Sut, S.; Department of Agronomy, Food, Natural Resources, Animals and Environment (DAFNAE), University of PadovaItaly; email:
Uncontrolled Keywords: Insect vectors Neglected tropical diseases Protozoan parasites Sandflies Visceral leishmaniasis antitrypanosomal agent carvacrol linalool terpene thymol animal disease model drug effect drug sensitivity hamster IC50 Leishmania infantum liver male parasitology pathology Animals Cricetinae Disease Models, Animal Inhibitory Concentration 50 Leishmaniasis, Visceral Monoterpenes Parasitic Sensitivity Tests Trypanocidal Agents
Subjects: WK Endocrine System
Divisions: Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
Depositing User: mr lib1 lib1
Date Deposited: 27 Jun 2020 05:45
Last Modified: 27 Jun 2020 05:45

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