The Clinical Spectrum of Plumbism; an Experience from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan

Jafri, Lena and Ullah Khan, Nadeem and Baig, Muhammad Akbar and Ali, Noman and Majid, Hafsa and Habib Khan, Ayesha (2017) The Clinical Spectrum of Plumbism; an Experience from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Asia Pacific Journal of Medical Toxicology, 6 (4). pp. 118-122.

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Abstract

Background:Lead toxicity continues to remain a concerning health problem for developing nations like Pakistan. Due to the lack of studies, we aim to highlight the clinical spectrum of lead poisoning in patients presenting to an urban-based tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Method:This is a retrospective review of patients admitted form January 2011 to December 2014 using a structured questionnaire for recording demographics, comorbidities, clinical findings, biochemical abnormalities, clinical findings and treatment provided. Patients were categorized as children (â�¤18yrs) and adults (>18yrs), further divided into three groups; desired blood lead levels (BLLs) lead levels <2ug/dl in children and <10ug/dl in adults, high but non-toxic children 2-10ug/dl, adults 10-70ug/dl and toxic children >10ug/dl, adults >70ug/dl. Result: A total of 86 patients were included in the final analysis, majority (69.6%) of whom were adult males with median age of 35 yrs. Median (IQR) BLL was 6.3 ug/dl (12.8-2.7) in all age groups with BLL in children and adults of 4.2 ug/dl (3.1-5.7) and 6.5 ug/dl (2.6-14.7), respectively. 72% of the children had complaints related to the central nervous system with majority complaining of irritability. The gastrointestinal system was most commonly implicated in adults (93%) with most common complaint of abdominal pain. The commonest risk factor showing a positive correlation with BLLs was battery handling in adults median (IQR) BLL 18.4ug/dl (8.35-36.1) and pica eating in children with BLLs in high but non-toxic range median (IQR) BLL 5.2ug/dl (2.7-5.7). The highest BLLs were observed to lie within the high but non-toxic range group in one adult herbal medicine user (54.4 ug/dl) and in children observed in the toxic range group (>10ug/dl) due to occupational battery work exposure and residence in a congested zone.  Conclusion:Lead toxicity continues to be hazardous due to unchecked environmental and occupational exposure. Increasing awareness is tantamount in order to find a solution.  Â

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QV pharmacology
Divisions: Journals > Asia Pacific J Toxicology
Depositing User: apjmt apjmt
Date Deposited: 23 Apr 2018 03:58
Last Modified: 23 Apr 2018 03:58
URI: http://eprints.mums.ac.ir/id/eprint/9693

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